Every year there are numerous shoulder and elbow injuries that occur due to overhand throwing, and most of these injuries are due to overuse, poor throwing biomechanics, and poor conditioning (Escamilla, Yamashiro, Andrews et al, 2017, 2012, 2010, 2009, 2007, 2002; Wilk, Reinold, et al, 2005; Reinold, Escamilla and Wilk, 2009 ). It is estimated that 10-25% of all pro baseball pitchers have undergone ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction (Conte, Wilk, et al, 2015; Cain, Wilk, et al, 2010; Vitale & Ahmad, 2008). The author of this session recently investigated the biomechanics of pro baseball pitchers with and without a history of UCL reconstruction and reported that pitching mechanics are similar between pro pitchers with and without UCL reconstruction (Fleisig, Escamilla, Andrews et al, 2015). An understanding of shoulder and elbow biomechanics and pathomechanics during overhead throwing can enhance performance and minimize shoulder injury potential. The purpose of this session is to provide current scientific evidence on the shoulder and elbow biomechanics and pathomechanics in the overhead throwing athlete.
Following this webinar, the participant will be able to:
- Describe shoulder and elbow biomechanics and pathomechanics in the overhead throwing athlete
- Describe rotator cuff and SLAP shoulder pathologies in the overhead throwing athlete
- Describe shoulder micro-instability in the overhead throwing athlete
- Describe and compare elbow valgus loading and pitching biomechanics in professional pitchers with and without UCL reconstruction, describe how elbow valgus loading is related to pitching kinematics and kinetics
- Describe risk factors in UCL injury and injury prevention techniques in youth and adults
Rafael Escamilla, PT, PhD
Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist
Fellow American College of Sports Medicine
Dr. Escamilla is currently a Professor of Physical Therapy and Director of the Biomechanics Laboratory at California State University, Sacramento, and Research Coordinator at Results Physical Therapy and Training Center in Sacramento. He previously served as Director of Research at the Andrews Institute in Gulf Breeze, FL, Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, NC, Director of the Michael W. Krzyzewski Human Performance Laboratory at Duke University, and taught biomechanics and anatomy courses in the Doctor of Physical Therapy program at Duke University. Dr Escamilla received a Ph.D. Degree in Biomechanics from Auburn University in 1995. He also received a Master of Physical Therapy degree from Elon University in 2002 and has practiced as a physical therapist since 2002. He has been a certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (C.S.C.S.) since 1991 and has taught numerous C.S.C.S. classes and workshops, and he is a Fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine. His area of expertise is in Sports Medicine and Sports Biomechanics. He has published over 200 peer reviewed scientific papers, abstracts, and book chapters in biomechanics, physical therapy, and sports medicine related journals and textbooks. He has given nearly 150 professional presentations at scientific conferences, primarily in the areas of knee biomechanics during exercise, overhead throwing biomechanics, and strength and conditioning. He has worked with numerous high-profile professional athletes focusing on training and rehabilitation, athletic performance, and injury prevention. In 2015-2016 Dr Escamilla was chosen the outstanding senior faculty researcher at California State University, Sacramento, and in 2014-2015 he was chosen the outstanding researcher for the College of Health and Human Services at California State University, Sacramento. Dr Escamilla has won three national and international powerlifting championships, and was a collegiate athlete in football, baseball, and track.